D) because they rarely interact with matter. Fusion produces even more energy than fission. The Sun is shrinking all the time, it just happens very slowly. That’s because a great deal of energy is needed to overcome the … C) when the Sun was being formed from a collapsing cloud of gas. A) The chromosphere is the source of ultraviolet light, and the corona is the source of X rays. What was the major drawback of this idea? What do we mean when we say that the Sun is in gravitational equilibrium? Nuclear fusion - Nuclear fusion - Fusion reactions in stars: Fusion reactions are the primary energy source of stars and the mechanism for the nucleosynthesis of the light elements. It takes place only at extremely high temperatures. Rank the layers of the Sun based on their density, from highest to lowest. Rank the following layers of the Sun based on their temperature, from highest to lowest. Why do sunspots appear darker than their surroundings? Fusion is the process by which the sun and other stars generate light and heat. A. corona B. core C. photosphere D. convection zone E. chromosphere F. radiation zone Enter the letters of all correct statements in alphabetical order (without spaces). Which of these things poses the greatest hazard to communications satellites? B) strong magnetic fields slow convection and prevent hot plasma from entering the region. 70 percent hydrogen, 28 percent helium, 2 percent other elements. For a nuclear fusion reaction to occur, it is necessary to bring two nuclei so close that nuclear forces become active and glue the nuclei together. Stars that have masses similar to the Sun's, and sizes similar to the Earth are. Rank the layers of the Sun's atmosphere based on their temperature, from highest to lowest. Rank the following layers of the Sun based on the pressure within them, from highest to lowest. Which of these layers of the Sun is coolest? Match these items to the correct part of the sunspot cycle. 12.2 The Sun's Structure (Discovering the Universe, 5th ed., §9.0, 9.8) Picture Information. How do we know what goes on under the surface of the Sun? Photo: The Earth is powered by nuclear fusion happening inside the Sun. Based on its surface temperature of 5,800 K, what color are most of the photons that leave the Sun's surface? The Sun can be divided into two basic parts. The heart of the Sun has a temperature close to 15.7 million Kelvin. The centre of our star is its coolest location. There is a balance within the Sun between the outward push of pressure and the inward pull of gravity. The rate of nuclear fusion in the Sun peaks about every 11 years. Rank the layers of the Sun's atmosphere based on their density, from highest to lowest. What is the single most important characteristic in determining the course of a star's evolution? The first step in the proton-proton chain produces an antielectron, or positron. Fusion occurs in the Sun and is one of the most energetic processes in the universe. When is/was gravitational contraction an important energy-generation mechanism for the Sun? 2. core, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona. The energy from the Sun - both heat and light energy - originates from a nuclear fusion process that is occurring inside the core of the Sun.The specific type of fusion that occurs inside of the Sun is known as proton-proton fusion.. In this fusion reaction, two protons (1 H) collide to form a deuteron (a nucleus of deuterium, 2 H), with the liberation of a positron (the electron’s positively charged antimatter counterpart, denoted e +). Not nuclear, it takes an extremely hight temperature for Fusion to occur with in the sun or any other star. Nuclear fusion Nuclear fusion is when two small, light nuclei join together to make one heavy nucleus. Why must the Sun's rate of fusion gradually rise over billions of years? Nuclear fusion – energy of the future? This photo was taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), a joint project of the ESA (European Space Agency) and NASA. What observations characterize solar maximum? The process is what powers our own Sun, and therefore is the root source of all the energy on Earth. A) It predicted that the Sun could last only about 25 million years, which is far less than the age of Earth. Nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium occurs in the... energy moves through the sun's ____ by means of the rising of hot gas and falling of cooler gas, nearly all the visible light we see from the Sun is emitted from the ___, Most of the Sun's ultraviolet light is emitted from the narrow layer called the ____ where temperature increases with altitude, we can see the sun's ____ most easily during total solar eclipses, the ___ is the layer of the Sun between its core and convection zone. This is where nuclear fusion occurs generating energy by converting hydrogen to helium. Overall, the Sun's average density is roughly the same as that of ___, The Sun spins on its axis roughly once each, The primary source of the Sun's energy is, fusion of light nuclei to make heavier ones, A typical solar granule is about the size of, As we move to greater and greater distances above the solar photosphere, the temperature in the Sun's atmosphere, The time between successive sunspot maxima is about, we detect fewer solar neutrinos than we expect. B) Solar neutrinos have been detected, but in fewer numbers than predicted by theoretical models. Nuclear fusion of hydrogen to form helium occurs naturally in the sun and other stars. Why do sunspots appear dark in pictures of the Sun? Which of the following best describes where other forms of light are released? Nuclear fusion, process by which nuclear reactions between light elements form heavier elements (up to iron). A way that particles can travel that quickly is by being in a hot gas or in plasma, like in the Sun. … Fusion produces even more energy than fission. Which statement best describes the solar neutrino problem? Typically, a neutron will react with an atom of Uranium-235 to produce two smaller atoms, for example Rubidium and Caesium, plus three neutrons. C) Energy is transported outward by the rising of hot plasma and the sinking of cooler plasma. In cases where the interacting nuclei belong to elements with low atomic numbers (e.g., hydrogen [atomic number 1] or its isotopes deuterium and tritium), substantial amounts of energy are released. 4. 1. it happens all at once in a big chain-reaction explosion. Rank the following layers of the Sun based on their temperature, from highest to lowest. The Sun's core would start to heat up and the rate of fusion would increase even more. What is the average temperature of the surface of the Sun? ... A series of repeated reactions that occur very rapidly. corona, chromosphere, photosphere, convection zone, radiation zone, core. There is no evidence for this. D) We see many sunspots on the surface of the Sun. 1. when the Sun was being formed from a collapsing cloud of gas, 3. Sunspots are cooler than the surrounding solar surface because. Why are neutrinos so difficult to detect? D) our mathematical models of the solar interior are fairly accurate. The density of the Sun is most similar to that of. core, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere. D) 70 percent hydrogen, 28 percent helium, 2 percent other elements. Most of the energy produced in the Sun is released in the form of visible light from the photosphere. Because of the electromagnetic force, the two protons will. 1. the winding of magnetic field lines due to differential rotation. Which of these groups of particles has the greatest mass? The light radiated from the Sun's surface reaches Earth in about 8 minutes, but the energy of that light was released by fusion in the solar core about. C) The rate of nuclear fusion in the Sun peaks about every 11 years. Fusion energy, simply, is the exact opposite of fission energy, which comes from splitting an atom and is widely used to power nuclear plants and weapons.Fusion occurs constantly on our sun… In which of the following layers of the Sun does nuclear fusion occur? 4. For 100 years it has been a common belief that nuclear fusion occurs inside stars. The core is the innermost quarter of the visible radius of the sun. Which of the following statements about the sunspot cycle is not true? To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. What would happen if the fusion rate in the core of the Sun were increased but the core could not expand? Some time in the future, we might be able to create small-scale fusion power ourselves, here on Earth. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. core, radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, corona. To ensure the best experience, please update your browser. The core of the sun is the center of the sun. The atmosphere of the Sun surrounds the interior, and is transparent to visible light and is relatively low density. Start studying Planets. It is the opposite reaction of fission, where heavy isotopes are split apart. Fusion occurs when two light nuclei, such as hydrogen, collide and combine to form heavier nuclei. Consider all forms of light, but do not consider neutrinos or other particles. From the center outward, which of the following lists the "layers" of the Sun in the correct order? The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen; sometimes called Bethe–Weizsäcker cycle after Bethe and Weizsäcker) is one of the two known sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction (p-p cycle), which is more efficient at the Sun's core temperature. core, radiation zone, convective zone, photosphere In which layer of the Sun does nuclear fusion occur? Studies of sunquakes, or helioseismology, have revealed that. ADDED: Yes "nuclear". Oh no! C) It is rapidly converted to energy when it meets an ordinary electron, resulting in matter-antimatter annihilation. What are the appropriate units for the Sun's luminosity? If neutrinos can escape from the solar core within minutes, then how long does it take a photon to escape? Even so, there have been examples of nuclear fission in natural reactors. 1. Which of the following is the most common type of star? The visible light we see from our Sun comes from which part. The temperature at a sunspot umbra drops to 4000K, well below the surrounding photosphere. Suppose that, for some unknown reason, the core of the Sun suddenly became hotter. The same process occurs in thermonuclear (fusion) bombs. 1. the bubbling pattern on the photosphere produced by the underlying convection, 1. areas of the corona where magnetic field lines project into space, allowing charged particles to escape the Sun, becoming part of the solar wind. They actually are fairly bright but appear dark against the even brighter background of the surrounding Sun. At the center of the Sun, fusion converts hydrogen into. 3. What physical property of a star does the spectral type measure? Fusion has also been used in different experimental devices, often with the hope of producing energy in a controlled fashion.On the other hand, fission is a nuclear process that does not normally occur in nature, as it requires a large mass and an incident neutron. Which of the following layers of the Sun can be seen with some type of telescope? Which of the following statements about neutrinos is not true? Rank the following layers of the Sun based on the pressure within them, from highest to lowest. core, radiation zone, convective zone, photosphere. Nuclear fusion occurs only under conditions of extremely high … For example, … Rank the layers of the Sun based on their density, from highest to lowest. The interior of the Sun is a spherical region that is opaque to visible light and is relatively high density. How do human-built nuclear power plants on Earth generate energy? It looks like your browser needs an update. In which layer of the Sun does nuclear fusion occur? Which of the following layers of the Sun can be seen with some type of telescope? The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram plots ________ against the spectral type or temperature. 5. What happens to the positron? Following are the different layers of the Sun's atmosphere. A) the bubbling pattern on the photosphere produced by the underlying convection, B) areas of the corona where magnetic field lines project into space, allowing charged particles to escape the Sun, becoming part of the solar wind. What are the two most important intrinsic properties used to classify stars? The density of the atmosphere we breathe is 10 19 molecules per cm 3. Which is the strongest of the fundamental forces in the universe? D) There is a balance within the Sun between the outward push of pressure and the inward pull of gravity. It predicted that the Sun could last only about 25 million years, which is far less than the age of Earth. The total radius of the Sun is 6.955×10 5 km (about 109 times radius of Earth). Suppose you put two protons near each other. Rank the layers of the atmosphere based on the energy of the photons that are typically emitted there, from highest to lowest. In the late 1800s, Kelvin and Helmholtz suggested that the Sun stayed hot thanks to gravitational contraction. The overall fusion reaction by which the Sun currently produces energy is. They are cooler than their surroundings. D) the winding of magnetic field lines due to differential rotation. However, some energy is released from the upper layers of the solar atmosphere. Rank them based on the order in which a probe would encounter them when traveling from Earth to the Sun's surface, from first encountered to last. What is a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem? All stars, from red dwarfs through the Sun to the most massive supergiants, achieve nuclear fusion in their cores by rising to temperatures of 4,000,000 K or higher. Modern nuclear power plants produce power from the energy produced during nuclear fission, where heavy and unstable atoms are split open. Which is closest to the temperature of the core of the Sun? It looks like your browser needs an update. The "Solar Neutrino Problem" refers to the fact that astronomers, detect only a third of the number of neutrinos expected by theory, The number of sunspots and solar activity in general peaks. Rank the following layers of the Sun based on the pressure within them, from highest to lowest. On Earth, nuclear fusion was first achieved in the creation of the hydrogen bomb. Nuclear fusion takes place only within the core of the sun, which is the region with the highest pressure, temperature (15m ˚ C) and density (10 26 protons per cm 3). How much mass does the Sun lose through nuclear fusion per second? E) The mass of a neutrino is 30 percent of the mass of an electron. 3. What processes are involved in the sunspot cycle? Well, it takes a series of steps to reach the final solution…First let’s start with the age of the Earth - We know from radioactive dating that the Earth is roughly five billion years old. Oh no! 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